Saturday, February 2, 2019
The Great War Essay -- essays research papers
Imperialism The late nineteenth and early twentieth century axiom a great deal of colonization of Asia and Africa by europiuman powers, distri hardlyively trying to fulfill its own version of manifest destiny. England controlled vast holds in Africa, as well as India the Belgians ruled the Congo Germany, France, and Italy likewise held several(prenominal) African lands. These colonies funded a great part of the ruling countries economies and provided foreign markets for European products, and expansion became necessary and desirable to advance the glory and the wealth of apiece European power. However, the land available diminished as Germany, France, England, Italy, and Belgium occupied increasingly large tracts of land. Oftentimes, border disputes would break out between colonists of different nationalities for exercising the Boer War in South Africa between the Dutch and the English. Furthermore, in the mettle East, the crumbling Ottoman Empire was alluring Austria-Hungary , the Balkans and Russia. Militarism An arms race punctuated the hostile feelings among the European nations. Acknowledging that Germany was the leader in military organization and efficiency, the other great powers of Europe copied the universal conscription, large reserves and detailed planning of the Prussian system. scientific and organizational developments led to the formation of general staffs with precise plans for mobilization and encounter that often could not be reversed once they were begun. The German von Schlieffen mean to attack France before Russia in the event of war with Russia was one much(prenominal) complicated plan that drew more countries into war than necessary.Armies and navies were greatly expanded. The stand armies of France and Germany doubled in size between 1870 and 1914. Naval expansion was also extremely competitive, particularly between Germany and Great Britain. By 1889, the British had set up the principle that in order to maintain naval supe riority in the event of war, they would have to have a navy cardinal and a half times as large as the second-largest navy. This motivated the British to launch the Dreadnought, invented by Admiral Sir John Fisher, in 1906. The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 had demonstsrated how telling these battleships were. As Britain increased their output of battleships, Germany correspondingly stepped up their naval production, including the Dreadnought. Althou... ... Sarajevo, Bosnia, by a Serbian nationalist belonging to an organization known as the Black Hand(Narodna Obrana). Immediately following the assassination Germany pledged its full maintenance (blank check) to Austria-Hungary, pressuring them to declare war on Serbia, while France strengthened its backing of Russia. confident(p) that the Serbian government had conspired against them, Austria-Hungary issued Serbia an ultimatum which the Serbs could not possibly answer in time, but to which Serbia consented almost entirely. Unsat isfied, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914. On July 29, Russia consistent a partial mobilization only against Austria-Hungary in support of Serbia, which escalated into a general mobilization. The Germans threatened war on July 31 if the Russians did not demobilize. Upon organism asked by Germany what it would do in the event of a Russo-German War, France responded that it would act in its own interests and mobilized. On August 1, Germany declared war on Russia, and two days later, on France. The German invasion of Belgium to attack France, which violated Belgiums prescribed neutrality, prompted Britain to declare war on Germany. World War I had begun.